Present perfect/simple past. Present perfect simple and progressive.

We use the Present Perfect for actions in the past which have a connection to the present. The time when these actions happened is not important.

Present Perfect


We use the Present Perfect for recently completed actions.

Present Perfect


We use the Present Perfect for actions beginning in the past and still continuing.

Present Perfect

 

Present Perfect – Use:

1) Result of an action in the past is important in the present

I have cleaned my room.


2) Recently completed action

He has just played handball.


3) State beginning in the past and still continuing

We have lived in Canada since 1986.


4) together with lately, recently, yet

I have been to London recently.


Signal words

just, yet, never, already, ever, so far, up to now, recently, since, for

NOW LET’S CONTRAST THE PRESENT PERFECT WITH THE  SIMPLE PAST:

1) Use

Present Perfect Simple Past
Result of an action in the past is important in the present action finished in the past
Recently completed actions series of completed actions in the past
Actions beginning in the past and still continuing together with the Past Progressive/Continuous – The Simple Past interrupted an action which was in progress in the past.
together with lately, recently, yet

2) Signal words

Present Perfect Simple Past
just, yet, never, already, ever, so far, up to now, recently, since, for yesterday, last week, a month ago, in 2002
  • NOW PRACTISE WITH THESE EXERCISES:
  1. past simple/present perfect 1
  2. past simple /present perfect 2
  3. past simple/present perfect 3
  4. past simple/present perfect (duration)

 

Present Perfect Progressive

We use the Present Perfect Progressive for actions in the past which have a connection to the present.
We use the Present Perfect for actions beginning in the past and still continuing. The focus is on the action.

Present Perfect Progressive


We use the Present Perfect Progressive for recently completed actions. The focus is on the action.

Present Perfect Progressive

 

Present Perfect – Present Perfect

Progressive – contrasted

1) Use

Both tenses are very simlilar. There are sentences where we can use the Present Perfect or the Present Perfect Progressive. The focus in the progressive form is on the course of the action.

It has rained since Monday.
(It has rained – at least once or now and then.)

It has been raining since Monday.
(It has been raining every day since Monday.)

The present perfect continuous refers to an unspecified time between ‘before now’ and ‘now’. The speaker is thinking about something that started but perhaps did not finish in that period of time. He/she is interested in the process as well as the result,and this process may still be going on, or may have just finished.

Examples:

1. Actions that started in the past and continue in the present.

a. She has been waiting for you all day (=and she’s still waiting now).

b. I’ve been working on this report since eight o’clock this morning (=and I still haven’t finished it).

c. They have been travelling since last October (=and they’re not home yet).

2. Actions that have just finished, but we are interested in the results:

a. She has been cooking since last night (=and the food on the table looks delicious).

b. It’s been raining (= and the streets are still wet).

c. Someone’s been eating my chips (= half of them have gone).

There are verbs which are normally not used with the progressive forms, like:

be, believe, belong, hate, hear, like, love, mean, prefer, remain, realize, see, seem, smell, think, understand, want, wish

  • I’ve wanted to visit China for years.
  • She’s known Robert since she was a child.
  • I’ve hated that music since I first heard it.
  • I’ve heard a lot about you recently.
  • We’ve understood everything we’ve heard this morning.

NOW YOU CAN PRACTISE:

  1. exercise 1
  2. exercise 2

 

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Posted on 06/11/2011, in GRAMMAR and tagged . Bookmark the permalink. Leave a comment.

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